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[Docker] Docker Beginner''s handbook

996worker
2021-07-03 / 0 评论 / 0 点赞 / 141 阅读 / 4,420 字
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** Sorry for Chinese content. These are my notes. **

Docker 入门

镜像基本命令


基本的

docker version # 版本信息
docker info # detailed message
docker [command] --help # help for ###
docker stats # see CPU status

About Images

docker images # see all images locally
docker search [name] # search the image on Hub
docker pull [name] # download the image
docker rmi [name/id] # remove image

About Containers

run

docker run [name/id] # run a container
# Arguments
-d # background,
-it # interaction,
-p # assign port # 8080:8080 host port:container port 

# eg: docker run -it centos /bin/bash 

docker ps # see running containers now
# Arguments
-a # see all recently run containers
-n=? # see all containers created recently, ? means showing number

exit

exit # when in a container, exit
# hotkeys
control + P + Q # when in a container, exit, but remains background

delete

docker rm [id] # remove container
docker rm -f $(docker ps -aq) # rm all containers by their id recursively
docker ps -a -q|xargs docker rm # rm all containers with pipeline command

start and stop

docker start [id]
docker restart [id]
docker stop [id]
docker kill [id]

Other frequently used commands

start container from background

docker start -d [id]
# CAUTION: if the container doesn't have things to run, it will stop
# we need a process to maintain background running

see logs

docker logs -tf [id] # see log of a container

see processes inside the container

docker top [id] # see processes inside the container

see META info about container

docker inspect [id] # see container META info

enter the running container

# 进入后台容器修改配置
# 方式一 commands
docker exec -it [id] [bashshell] 
# eg: docker exec -it 652ad135c225 /bin/bash

# 方式二 
docker attach [id]

# differences: exec will start a new Terminal and do something,
# Meanwhile, attach will not start any new things

copy files from container to host

docker cp [containerID]:[containerPath] [targetPath]
# tips: this is a manually method, we can use -v tech to achieve automatically sync

可视化

portainer

what?

Docker的图形化管理工具。[其实可以用Docker Hub的]

install&run

Docker run -d -p 8088:9000 --restart=always \
-v /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock \
--privileged=true portainer/portainer

联合文件系统

类似于Git


镜像提交

docker commit # commit a container as a new image
docker commit -m="message" -a="author" [id] [ImageName]: [TAG]

Docker 进阶

容器数据卷

用于实现数据持久化. 一种数据共享技术,可以把docker的数据同步到本地挂载,也可以容器间共享。

使用

  • 方式一 使用命令

    docker run -it -v hostDir:containerDir
    # eg: docker run -it -v ~/testDir:/home centos /bin/bash
    

MySQL数据持久化问题

docker run -p 3310:3306 -v ~/mysqlContainer/conf:/etc/mysql/conf.d -v ~/mysqlContainer/data:/var/lib/mysql -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=root -d --name mysql01 mysql:latest

就算把容器删除,本地的数据卷不会丢失。


Dockerfile

事用来构建docker镜像的文件,公司交作业要用到

步骤

  1. 编写dockerfile文件
  2. docker build 构建成为一个镜像
  3. docker run 运行
  4. docker push 发布

例子:centos的

FROM scratch
ADD centos-8-x86_64.tar.xz /
LABEL org.label-schema.schema-version="1.0"     org.label-schema.name="CentOS Base Image"     org.label-schema.vendor="CentOS"     org.label-schema.license="GPLv2"     org.label-schema.build-date="20201204"
CMD ["/bin/bash"]

常用命令图解

命令图解

Build

  1. 每个保留字必须大写字母
  2. 指令从上到下
  3. 每一个指令会创造一个镜像层

具体指令

FROM # 基础镜像,一切从这里构建
MAINTAINER # 镜像作者, Name + Email
RUN # 镜像构建的时候需要运行的命令
ADD # 步骤:比如tomcat镜像,添加tomcat压缩包
WORKDIR # 设置镜像的工作目录
VOLUME # 挂载数据卷
EXPOSE # 设置暴露的端口
CMD # 指定容器启动时运行的命令,可被替代
ENTRYPOINT # 指定启动时运行的命令,可以追加
ONBUILD # 当构建一个被继承DockerFile,会运行ONBUILD指令
COPY # 类似ADD,将文件copy到镜像中
ENV # 设置环境变量
RUN

Build ur own centos

  1. 写Dockerfile
# mycentos Dockerfile
FROM centos
MAINTAINER learner<[email protected]>

ENV MYPATH /usr/local
WORKDIR $MYPATH

RUN yum -y install vim
RUN yum -y install net-tools

EXPOSE 80

CMD echo $MYPATH
CMD echo "---end---"
CMD /bin/bash
  1. 构建docker镜像

    docker build -f mydockerfile -t mycentos:0.1 .
    

CMD和ENTRYPOINT区别

CMD # 指定容器启动时运行的命令,可被替代
# 只有最后一个命令会生效
ENTRYPOINT # 指定启动时运行的命令,可以追加
# 在start时,可以继续追加命令

实例:Tomcat镜像

建立了一个文件夹,内容如下:

Dockerfile                  jdk-8u281-linux-x64.tar
apache-tomcat-9.0.43.tar.gz readme.txt

在Dockerfile里写:

FROM centos
MAINTAINER learner<[email protected]>

COPY readme.txt /usr/local/readme.txt

ADD jdk-8u281-linux-x64.tar /usr/local/
ADD apache-tomcat-9.0.43.tar.gz /usr/local/

RUN yum -y install vim

ENV MYPATH /usr/local
WORKDIR $MYPATH

ENV JAVA_HOME /usr/local/jdk1.8.0_281
ENV CLASSPATH $JAVA_HOME/lib/dt.jar:$JAVA_HOME/lib/tools.jar
ENV CATALINA_HOME /usr/local/apache-tomcat-9.0.43
ENV CATALINA_BASE /usr/local/apache-tomcat-9.0.43
ENV PATH $PATH:$JAVA_HOME/bin:$CATALINA_HOME/lib:$CATALINA_HOME/bin

EXPOSE 8080

CMD /usr/local/apache-tomcat-9.0.43/bin/startup.sh && tail -F /usr/local/apache-tomcat-9.0.43/logs/catalina.out

构建

docker build -t diytomcat .

运行

docker run -d -p 9090:8080 --name learntomcat -v /Users/shaotienlee/dockerFiles/volume/test:/usr/local/apache-tomcat-9.0.43/webapps/test -v /Users/shaotienlee/dockerFiles/volume/logs:/usr/local/apache-tomcat-9.0.43/logs diytomcat

发布测试(在本地卷编写就可以发布了)

发布

  • Docker Hub

    去那网上注册个账号,然后

    docker login --help
    docker push [username]/[imagename]:[tag]
    
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